sábado, 12 de marzo de 2011

Temperaturas recomendadas y ventilación ( Air vents)

Adjunto otra  relación de temperaturas recomenadas de otro autor, así como la ventilación sugerida.

Con la ventilación extraemos del interior del contenedor el calor producido por la propia fruta, ( hay que tener en cuenta que es un ser vivo y continua su proceso de respiración y vida hasta su senescencia) así como sus gases. En las tablas adjuntas se recomienda para cada fruta un tipo de ventilacion.

La ventilación en el interior del contenedor fluye por el suelo atraves de las canaletas tipo T se dirige hacia la puerta y retorna por el techo arrastrando todo el calor y gases. Por lo tanto la temperatura de la fruta en las cajas superiores siempre será mayor. Cuando se toman temperaturas hay que anotar su posición: Cajas inferiores, medio, alto.Asimismo cuando retiramos los TempTales u otros aparatos registradores de temperaturas hay que citar donde estaban situados. Usualmente están colocados junto a la puerta en la parte superior del palet. Por lo tanto tendremos temperaturas de retorno ( más altas)

  Adjunto unas fotos de Air vents ( cerrados) por lo tanto llevan productos congelados.

  Adjunto una gráfica donde se observa la circulación del aire dentro del contenedor.





Useful hints for shipping reefer commodities
All numbers on this pages should only be used as a guideline and recommendation for cargo trasnported in reefer containers. The temperature and the transit life time are highly dependent on the stage of ripeness and place of origin of the product.
Commodity
Max. Transit Shelf Life (Days)
Recommended Container Temperature Setting
Air Vent Open (%)
F
C
FRESH VEGETABLE AND MELONS





Artichokes, globe
15-20
32
0
10
Asparagus
100-150
32
0
5
Beans, lima
7-10
32-39
0
5
Beans, snap or green
7-10
32
0
20
Beets, bunch
10-14
32
0
5
Beets, roots
90-150
32
0
-
Broccoli
10-14
32-39
0-4
20
Brussels sprouts
17-25
32-39
0-4
20
Cabbage, Chinese
30-60
32-39
0-4
5
Cabbage, green, red, savory
90-180
32
0
20
Cantaloupes
10-14
38-40
3-4
20
Carrots, topped
28-180
32
0
5
Casaba melons
21-28
50
10
20
Cassava
14-21
56
13
-
Cauliflower
20-30
32
0
20
Celeriac
180-240
32
0
5
Celery
14-28
32-39
0-4
20
Chard
10-14
32
0
20
Chayotes
8-10
45
7
5
Chicory
14-28
32
0
20
Collards
10-14
32
0
20
Corn, sweet
4-6
32
0
5
Crenshaw melons
14-21
50
10
20
Cucumbers
10-14
54-61
12-16
20
Dasheen or taro
42-140
56
13
-
Eggplant
10-14
50
10
5
Endive (escarole)
10-17
32
0
10
Garlic
90-210
28.5-32
-2-0
5
Ginger
90-180
56
13
5
Greens, leafy
10-14
32
0
20
Honey melons (untreated)
21-28
45-50
7-10
20
Honey melons (C2 H4 treated)
21-28
41
5
5
Horseradish
300-350
32
0
-
Kohlrabi
25-30
32
0
10
Leeks, green
30-60
32
0
5
Lettuce
10-17
32-39
0-4
10
Mushrooms
4-10
32
0
5
Okra
7-10
50
10
10
Onions, dry
30-180
32-39
0-4
10
Onions, green
7-10
32
0
10
Parsley
30-60
32
0
20
Parsnips
60-120
32-39
0-4
-
Peas
7-10
32-39
0-4
20
Peppers, bell (sweet)
12-18
45-50
7-10
10
Peppers, chili
14-21
45-50
7-10
10
Persians melons
14-21
50
10
20
Potatoes, processing
56-175
50-65
10-18
10
Potatoes, seed
84-175
36-40
2-4
10
Pumpkins
60-90
46-54
8-12
-
Radishes
10-17
32-39
0-4
5
Rhubarb
14-21
32-39
0-4
5
Rutabagas
60-120
32
0
5
Salsify
60-120
32
0
5
Spinach
5-10
32
0
20
Squash, soft-skin (summer)
7-14
45-50
7-10
10
Squash, hard-skin (winter)
84-150
50-55
10-13
-
Sweet potatoes
90-180
56
13
-
Temarinds
21-28
45
7
5
Tomatoes, mature green/breaker
21-28
54-58
12-14
20
Tomatoes, turning/light pink
7-14
50
10
20
Turnips, roots
60-120
32
0
5
Turnips, green
10-14
32
0
5
Water chestnuts
100-128
40-45
4-7
5
Watercress
4-7
32
0
20
Watermelons
14-21
50
10
-
Yams
50-115
56-60
13-16
-
Yucca
10-14
50


10


-
FRESH FRUITS
Acerola
50-58
32
0
5
Apples
90-240
32-39
0-4
5
Apricots
7-14
31
-1
10
Avocados
14-28
40-50
4-10
10
Bananas
7-28
57
14
10
Berries
.
.
.
.
Blackberry
2-3
31
-1
5
Blueberry
10-18
31
-1
5
Cranberry
60-120
36-40
2-4
5
Currants
7-14
31
1
5
Dewberry
2-3
31
-1
5
Elderberry
5-14
31
-1
5
Gooseberry
14-28
31
-1
5
Loganberry
2-3
31
-1
5
Raspberry
2-3
31
-1
5
Strawberry
5-10
31
-1
10
Breadfruit
14-40
56
13
20
Chaimito
20-25
38
3
5
Cherries,sour
3-7
31-31
-0.6-0
5
Cherries, sweet
14-21
30-32
-1.1-0
5
Cherimoya
14-28
54
12
10
Coconuts
25-56
32-35
0-2
-
Dates
24-52
32
0
5
Durian
42-56
39
4
5
Figs
7-10
32
0
10
Grapefruit (California, Arizona)
28-42
48-60
9-16
5
Grapefruit (Florida, Texas)
28-42
48-60
9-13
0-45
Grapefruit (Mexico)
28-42
48-58
9-14
5
Grapes
56-180
30-32
-1.1-0
5
Guava
14-21
50
10
10
Jackfruit
14-45
56
13
20
Kiwi fruit (Chinese gooseberry)
28-84
32
0
25
Lemons
30-180
38-56
3-13
20
Limes (Persian, Tahiti)
21-35
48-52
9-11
20
Limes (Mexican, Key)
10-15
52
11
20
Langsat
10-15
52
11
5
Lychee
21-35
35
2
5
Mangoes
14-25
42-55
6-13
20
Mangosteens
14-25
56
13
20
Nectarines
14-28
31
-1
20
Olives
28-42
45
7
20
Oranges (California, Arizona)
20-56
38-45
3-7
20
Oranges (Florida, Texas)
56-84
32-36
0-2
20
Papaya
7-21
45-54
7-12
20
Passion fruit
14-21
54
12
20
Peaches
14-28
31
-1
20
Pears (Anjou, 20th Century Asian)
120-180
30-31
1.1-0.6
10
Pears (Bosc, Bartlett)
60-90
30
-1
10
Persimmon (Fuyu)
35-84
50
10
20
Persimmon (Hachiya)
50-90
41
5
20
Pineapple
14-36
50
10
5
Plantaints
10-35
48-58
9-14
10
Plums and Prunes
14-28
31
-1
20
Pomegranates
28-56
32-41
0-5
5
Quinces
60-90
31
-1
20
Rambutan
7-21
54
12
20
Sapote
14-21
54
12
20
Tamarillos
28-42
32
0
10
Tangerines and Mandarin Oranges
14-28
38-40
3-4
20
Uglifruit
14-21
40
4
-
Frozen Vegetables and Fruits
.
0
-18
-
FRESH MEATS
Beef, Horse, Lamp, Pork, Poultry, veal
14-28
29
-2
.
FROZEN MEATS
Beef,Horse,Lamp, Pork, Poultry,veal
.
-5
-21
-
FROZEN FISH
fatty (l.e., herring, mackerel)
.
-10 to -5
-23 ~ -21
-
Lean
.
-10 to -5
-23 ~ -21
-
Shrimp, Scallops
.
-5 to -0
-23 ~ -18
-
Crab, Lobster
.
-10 to -5
-23 ~ -21
-
PROCESSED MEATS
Bacon-slab
21-28
27
-3
-
         -slice
.
27
-3
-
Bologna, franks
.
27
-3
-
Braunschweigher, liver sausage, and liver loaves
.
27
-3
-
Cold cuts, (sliced) : Lebanon bologna, luncheon loaf, picklepimiento loaf
.
.
.
.
Dried beef (sliced)
.
41
5
-
Hams-baked, boiled, ready to eat
.
28
-2
-
Hams-smoked
.
27
-3
-
Port sausage
.
27
-3
-
Sausage (country and Polish)
.
27
-3
-
POULTRY AND EGGS
Poultry : Fresh, ice-packed
.
33
1
-
Poultry : Fresh, chilled
.
29
-2
-
Eggs
180
33-38
1-3
-
DIARY PRODUCTS AND CHEESE
CHEESE
Natural (brick cheddar, Camembert, Neufchatel)
.
30-34
-1~1
-
Natural (cottage, cream, Limberger, Swiss)
.
32-34
0~1
-
Process (American, brick, Limberger, Swiss)
.
38-45
3~7
-
Roquefort (natural)
.
30-34
-1~1
-
Swiss (natural)
.
30-34
-1~1
-
Cheeses foods
.
40-45
4~7
-
BUTTER
Fresh
.
38-42
3~6
-
Frozen
.
-5
-21
-
Margarine
.
35
2
-
Ice creams
.
-15
-26
-
MISCELLANEOUS
Batteries
.
45
7
-
Candy
.
60
16
-
Christmas trees
.
32
0
-
Film/photographic chemical
.
50
10
-








(A)
(Recommend)
Set
Temp
(B)
(Allowable) Pulp
Temp
(Recommend) Fresh
Air Volume
(C)
Highest Freezing
Point
Suitable
Relative Humidity
Water
Content of Cargo
Post Harvest
Live

Commodity Name
C
F
C
F
CMH
CFM
C
F
(%)
(%)
Days

Apples
-1-4.4
30-40
6.7
44
25
15
-1.5
29.3
87.5
84.1
30-365
Apricots
1.5
35
7.8
46
50
30
-1.1
30.1
87.5
85.4
7-21
Artichokes (Globe)
0
32
5
41
50
30
-1.2
29.9
95-100
83.7
14-21
Asparagus
1.5
35
5
41
75
45
-0.6
30.9
95
93
14-21
Avocados
8.0
46
15.6
60
50
30
-0.3
31.5
87.5
65.4
14-56
Bananas
13.0
56
13.9
57
50
30
-0.8
30.6
90
74.8
7-28
Beans (Green)
6.0
43
12.8
55
75
45
-0.7
30.7
92
88.9
7-10
Beans (Lima)
3.3
38
5.0
41
75
45
-0.6
31.0
95
66.5
5-7
Beer (Barrelled)
3.0
37
4.5
40
-
-
-2.2
28.0
-
90.2
-
Beets (Topped)
0
32
5.0
41
25
15
-1.1
30.1
95
87.6
28-56
Blackberries
1.0
34
6.7
44
25
15
-0.8
30.6
95
84.8
2-3
Blueberries
0
32
6.7
44
25
15
-1.3
29.7
92.5
82.3
14
Broccolli (Sproutings)
0
32
5.0
41
75
45
-0.6
30.9
95-100
89.9
10-14
Brussels Sprouts
0
32
5.0
41
75
45
-0.8
30.5
95-100
84.9
21-35
Cabbage (Late)
0
32
5.0
41
75
45
-0.9
30.4
92.5
92.4
21-42
Carrots (Mature)
0
32
6.7
44
25
15
-1.4
29.5
98-100
88.2
210-270
Casaba
8.5
47
18.8
66
0
0
-1.1
30.1
87.5
92.7
60-90
Cauliflower
0
32
5.0
41
75
45
-0.8
30.6
95
91.7
21-28
Celeriac
0
32
5.0
41
25
15
-0.9
30.4
92.5
88.3
180-240
Celery
0
32
5.0
41
75
45
-0.5
31.1
95
93.7
60-90
Cherries (Sour)
0
32
6.7
44
25
15
-1.8
29.0
92.5
83.7
3-7
Cherries (Sweet)
0
32
6.7
44
25
15
-1.8
29.0
92.5
80.4
14-21
Coconuts
1.0
34
7.8
46
0
0
-0.8
29.0
82.5
46.9
30-60
Coffee (Green)
2.0
36
5.0
41
0
0
-
-
82.5
13.0
-
Collards
1.0
34
5.0
41
75
45
-0.8
30.6
92.5
86.9
10-14
Corn (Sweet)
0
32
5.0
41
25
15
-0.6
30.9
92.5
73.9
5-8
Cranberries
2.0
36
9.0
48
25
15
-0.9
30.4
92.5
87.4
60-120
Cucumbers
10.0
50
15.5
60
75
45
-0.5
31.1
92.5
96.1
10-14
Currants
1.0
34
7.8
46
25
15
-1.0
30.2
92.5
84.7
7-28
Dates
0
32
7.8
46
25
15
-15.7
3.7
75
20.0
180-365
Dewberries
0
32
6.7
44
25
15
-1.3
29.7
92.5
94.5
2-3
Eggplant
10.0
50
18.5
65
25
15
-0.8
30.6
90
92.7
7
Endive (Escarole)
1.0
34
5.0
41
50
30
-0.1
31.9
92.5
93.3
14-21
Fig (Dried)
0
32
4.5
40
-
-
-
-
55
24.0
-
Fig (Fresh)
0
32
6.7
44
50
30
-2.4
27.6
87.5
78.0
7-10
Garlic (Dry)
0
32
7.8
46
25
15
-0.8
30.5
67.5
61.3
180-210
Gooseberries
1.0
34
7.8
46
25
15
-1.1
30.0
92.5
88.9
21-28
Grapefruit
12.8
55
15.5
60
50
30
-1.1
30.0
87.5
88.8
28-42
Grapes (Eur)
0
32
5.5
42
25
15
-2.1
28.1
92.5
81.6
30-180
Grapes (USA)
1.0
34
5.5
42
25
15
-1.2
29.7
87.5
81.9
14-56
Greens (Leafy)
1.0
34
5.0
41
75
45
-0.4
31.7
92.5
-
10-14
Guavas
5
41
15.5
60
50
30
-
-
90
83
14-21
Honeydew
5.0
41
15.5
60
25
15
-0.9
30.3
87.5
92.6
21
Leeks (Green)
1.0
34
5.0
41
50
30
-0.7
30.7
92.5
85.4
60-90
Lemons
12.8
55
15.5
60
75
45
-1.7
29.4
87.5
89.3
30-180
Lettuce
1.0
34
5.0
41
50
30
-0.4
31.7
95
94.8
14-21
Limes
11.0
52
13.9
57
75
45
-1.6
29.1
87.5
86.0
42-56
Logan Blackberries
0
32
6.7
44
25
15
-1.3
29.7
92.5
82.9
2-3
Mangoes
12.8
55
12.8
55
75
45
-0.9
30.3
87.5
81.4
14-21
Melons (Persian)
8.3
47
10.0
50
75
45
-0.8
30.5
87.5
92.7
14
Melons (Cantaloupe)
0-2.2
32-36
5.0
41
75
45
-1.2
29.9
87.5
92.0
5-14
Mushrooms
1.0
34
5.0
41
-
-
-0.9
30.4
90
91.1
3-4
Nectarines
1.0
34
7.8
46
75
45
-0.9
30.4
90
82.0
14-28
Nuts
1.0
34
10.0
50
-
-
-
-
70
4.5
120-900
Okura
10.0
50
12.8
50
50
30
-1.8
28.7
92.5
89.8
7-10
Onions (Dry)
1.0
34
5.0
41
50
30
-0.8
30.6
67.5
87.5
30-240
Onions (Green)
1.0
34
5.0
41
50
30
-0.9
30.4
92.5
89.4
21-28
Orange Juice (Chilled)
0
32
1.7
35
0
0
-
-
-
89.0
2
Oranges (CA &AZ)
5.6
42
7.2
45
75
45
-0.8
30.6
87.5
87.2
21-56
Oranges (FL &TX)
1.1
34
7.2
45
75
45
-0.8
30.6
87.5
87.2
21-56
Papayas
7.2
45
12.2
54
75
45
-0.9
30.4
87.5
90.8
7-21
Parsley
1.0
34
5
41
75
45
-1.1
30.0
92.5
85.1
60-65
Parsnips
1.0
34
5.0
41
75
45
-0.9
30.4
92.5
78.6
120-180
Peaches
1.0
34
6.7
44
75
45
-0.9
30.4
90
89.1
14-28
Pears
1.0
34
5.0
41
75
45
-1.6
29.2
92.5
82.7
60-120
Pears (Green)
1.0
34
5.0
41
75
45
-0.6
30.9
92.5
74.3
7-14
Pepper (Chile, Dry)
10.0
50
12.8
55
50
30
-0.7
30.7
65
12.0
180
Pepper (Chile, Sweet)
10.0
50
12.8
55
50
30
-0.7
30.7
92.5
92.4
14-21
Peppers (Sweet)
10.0
50
12.8
55
50
30
-0.7
30.7
92.5
92.4
14-21
Persimmons
1.1
34
1.1
34
75
45
-2.2
28.1
90
78.2
90-120
Pineapples (Green)
10.0
50
21
70
25
15
-1.0
30.2
87.5
-
14-28
Pineapples (Ripe)
7.2
45
10.0
50
25
15
-1.0
30.2
87.5
85.3
14-36
Plums
1.0
34
7.8
46
75
45
-0.8
30.5
92.5
82.3
14-35
Pomegranates
5.0
41
10.5
51
25
15
-3.0
26.6
90
82.0
60-90
Potatoes (Early Crop)
10.0
50
12.8
55
25
15
-0.6
30.9
90
81.2
10-14
Potatoes (Late Crop)
4.4
40
10.0
50
25
15
-0.6
30.9
90
77.8
150-300
Popcorn (Unpopped)
1.0
34
3.4
40
-
-
-
-
85
13.5
-
Pumpkins
12.2
54
21.1
70
-
-
-0.8
30.5
72.5
90.5
60-90
Quinces
1.0
34
6.7
44
75
45
-2.0
28.4
90
85.3
60-90
Radishes (Spring)
1.0
34
5.0
41
25
15
-0.7
30.7
92.5
93.6
21-28
Radishes (Winter)
1.0
34
5.0
41
25
15
-
-
92.5
93.6
60-120
Raspberries (Black)
1.0
34
7.8
46
25
15
-1.1
30.0
92.5
80.6
2-3
Raspberries (Red)
1.0
34
7.8
46
25
15
-0.6
30.9
92.5
84.1
2-3
Rhubarb
1.0
34
5.0
41
25
15
-0.9
30.3
95
94.9
14-28
Rutabagas
1.0
34
5.0
41
25
15
-1.1
30.1
92.5
89.1
120-180
Salsify
1.0
34
5.0
41
25
15
-1.1
30.1
92.5
79.1
60-120
Seed (Vegetable)
1.0
34
10.0
50
-
-
-
-
57.5
11.0
-
Spinach
1.0
34
5.0
41
25
15
-0.3
31.5
92.5
92.7
10-14
Squash (Summer)
10.0
50
15.6
60
50
30
-0.5
31.1
90
94.0
7-14
Squash (Winter)
12.2
54
18.3
65
0
0
-0.9
30.3
72.5
88.6
60-90
Strawberries
1.0
34
7.8
46
50
30
-0.8
30.6
92.5
89.9
5-7
Sweet Potatoes
13.3
56
18.9
66
0
0
-1.3
29.7
87.5
68.5
120-210
Tangerines
3.3
38
6.0
43
75
45
-1.1
30.1
87.5
87.3
14-28
Watermelons
10.0
50
12.8
55
0
0
-0.4
30.0
82.5
92.1
14-21




----------------------------------------------------Complementando lo anterior.------------------------















Ampliando los datos anteriores, se adjunta un par de cuadros sobre las características y condiciones que se recomiendan relacionadas con el almacenamiento  de frutas frescas y vegetales.

























A titulo de ejemplo para observar la diferencia de temperaturas ambientes entre Suministro y Retorno. Un par de grados de diferencia puede considerarse razonable.



FRONTAL / Supply


Centro




PUERTA  / Retorno /  Return